Reverend James Allanson Picton (8 August 1832 - 4 February 1910) was a Congregational minister and Radical Liberal politician.
Born in Liverpool, he was educated at the Liverpool Institute, Owens College, Manchester and the University of London, graduating BA in 1854 and MA in 1856.
Having trained for the ministry he was pastor of Cheetham Hill Chapel in Manchester 1856–63 and Gallowtree Gate Chapel Leicester, 1863–68 before coming to London, where he was in charge of St. Thomas's Square Chapel, Hackney from 1868–76.
He was elected a member of the first London School Board in 1870 as one of the representatives of Hackney, and was re-elected twice, remaining a member until 1869. He served as chairman of the board's School Management Committee for three years.
In 1884 he was elected a member of parliament for Leicester, a seat he held until 1894. He retired to North Wales where he died.